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Windsor Castle
The Royal Palace at Windsor, 1751.

Windsor Castle

WINDSOR (properly NEW Windsor), a municipal borough of Berkshire, England, and a parliamentary borough extending into Buckinghamshire. The town, which is famous for its royal castle, lies on the west (right) bank of the Thames, 214 m. W. of London Here the Thames, from an easterly course, sweeps first nearly northward and then south-eastward.

The castle lies at the north-eastern edge of the town, on a slight but commanding eminence, while the massive round tower in the centre, on its artificial mound, is conspicuous from far over the flat land to the east, north and west. The site of the castle is an irregular parallelogram measuring about 630 yds. by 180. On the west the walls enclosing the "lower ward," with the Clewer, Garter, Salisbury and Henry III towers, overlook Thames Street and High Street, from which the "hundred steps" give access to the ward on the north, and the Henry VIII gateway, opening from Castle Hill, on the south. This ward contains St George's Chapel in the centre, with the Albert Memorial Chapel on the east and the Horseshoe Cloisters on the west. To the north are the deanery and the canon's residences, for the foundation attached to the royal chapel has the privileges of a "royal peculiar," the dean being exempt from episcopal jurisdiction. To the south are the guard-room and the houses of the military knights, or pensioners.

The round tower occupies the "middle ward"; on its flagturret the Union Jack or the Royal Standard is hoisted according as the sovereign is absent or present. The buildings in the "upper ward," east of this, form three sides of a square; the state apartments on the north, the private apartments on the east and the visitors' apartments on the south. Along the north side of the castle extends the north terrace, commanding, from its position above a steep slope, splendid views across the river to Eton on the Buckinghamshire side, and far over the valley. The east terrace, continuing the north, overlooks the gardens in front of the private apartments, and the south terrace continues farther, as far as the George IV gateway. The Home Park lies adjacent to the castle on the south, east and north. The Great Park extends south of Windsor, where the land, rising gently, is magnificently timbered with the remnant of the old royal forest. The village of Old Windsor (in distinction from which the name of New Windsor is given to the borough) lies by the river, south of the Home Park. To the west of Windsor itself the village of Clewer has become a suburb of the town.

As early as the time of the Heptarchy a stronghold of some importance existed at Windsor, the great mound, which is moated, circular and about 125 ft. in diameter, being a remnant of this period. William the Conqueror was attracted by the forest as a hunting preserve, and obtained the land by exchange from Westminster Abbey, to which Edward the Confessor had given it. Thereafter the castle became what it remains, the chief residence of the English sovereigns. The Conqueror replaced the primitive wooden enclosure by a stone circuit-wall, and the first complete round tower was built by Henry III about 1272, but Edward III wholly reconstructed it on a more massive scale, about 1344, to form a meeting-place for his newly established order of Knights of the Garter. He selected this spot because, according to a legend quoted by the chronicler Froissart, it was on the summit of the mound that King Arthur used to sit surrounded by his Knights of the Round Table. The bulk of the existing round tower is of Edward's time, but its walls were heightened and the tall flag-turret added by the court architect, Sir Jeffrey Wyatville, in the reign of George IV.

In addition to the Round Tower, Henry III had constructed long lines of circuit-walls, crowned at intervals with smaller towers. He also built a great hall (the present chapter library) and other apartments, together with a chapel, which was afterwards pulled down to make room for the chapel of St George. The beautiful little dean's cloister preserves a portion of Henry's work in the south wall, a contemporary portrait of the king appearing in distemper on one of the arches. Another chapel was built by him and dedicated to his favourite saint, Edward the Confessor. This graceful building, with an eastern apse, is now called the Albert Memorial Chapel; some of Henry III's work still exists in the lower part of its walls, but the upper part was rebuilt in 1501-1503 by Henry VII, who intended it as a burial-place for himself and his line, before he began the chapel which bears his name and contains his tomb at Westminster Abbey.

Some years later the unfinished chapel was given by Henry VIII to Cardinal Wolsey, and for long after it was known as "Wolsey's tomb-house." Wolsey engaged a Florentine sculptor named Benedetto, probably a son or nephew of Benedetto da Maiano (d. 1497), also a Florentine artist, to make him a costly tomb of marble and gilt bronze, with a recumbent effigy at the top, no doubt similar in design to Torrigiano's tomb of Henry VII at Westminster. The rich bronze work of Wolsey's tomb was torn off and melted by order of the Commonwealth in 1642, and the metal was sold for the then large sum of £600. In 1805 the black marble sarcophagus, stripped of its bronze ornaments, was moved from Windsor and used as a monument over Nelson's grave in the crypt of St Paul's. Though Wolsey's tomb-house was roofed in and used for mass by James II, the stone vaulting was not completed until the whole chapel was fitted by Sir Gilbert Scott as a memorial to Albert, Prince Consort. Its internal walls were then lined with rich marbles, and decorated with reliefs by Baron Triqueti. The cenotaph of the Prince Consort stands before the altar, with the tombs of Prince Leopold, duke of Albany, and the duke of Clarence; the last erected by King Edward VII, who was himself buried here in May 1910. In a vault beneath the chapel George III and members of his family are buried.

The chapel of St George is one of the finest examples of Perpendicular architecture in England, comparable with two other royal chapels, that of King's College at Cambridge and that of Henry VII at Westminster, which are a little later in date. The building was begun by Edward IV, who in 1473 pulled down almost the whole of the earlier chapel, which had been completed and filled with stained glass by Edward III in 1363. The nave of St George's was vaulted about the year 1490, but the choir groining was not finished till 1507; the hanging pendants from the fan vaulting of the choir mark a later development of style, which contrasts strongly with the simpler lines of the earlier nave vault. In 1516 the lantern and the rood-screen were completed, but the stalls and other fittings were not finished till after 1519.

The chapel ranks next to Westminster Abbey as a royal mausoleum, though no king was buried there before Edward IV, who left directions in his will that a splendid tomb was to be erected with an effigy of himself in silver. Nothing remains of this except part of the wrought iron grille which surrounded the tomb, one of the most elaborate and skilfully wrought pieces of ironwork in the world, said to be the work of Quintin Matsys. The next sovereign buried here was Henry VIII,who directed that his body should be laid beside that of Jane Seymour, in a magnificent bronze and marble tomb. The tomb was never completed, and what existed of its metal-work was probably melted down by the Commonwealth. No trace of it remains. Charles I was buried here without service in 1649. Above the dark oak stalls hang the historic insignia of the Knights of the Garter, their swords, helmets and banners. On the stalls themselves appear a remarkable series of enamelled brass plates commemorating knights of the order. Many tombs and memorials are seen in the chantry chapels.

The deanery, adjoining the dean's cloister, is dated 1500, but the Winchester tower to the north-east of it is the work of the famous prelate and architect William of Wykeham, who was employed by Edward III on the greater part of this extension and alteration of Henry III's work. The Horseshoe cloisters were restored in Tudor style by Sir Gilbert Scott. The Norman gate on the north side of the round tower was rebuilt by Wykeham.

The site of the upper ward was built upon by Henry II, and, to a greater extent, by Edward III, but only in the foundations and lowest storey are remains of so early a period to be found. The buildings were wanting in homogeneity until their reconstruction was undertaken by Sir Jeffrey Wyatville under the direction of George IV, for King Charles II was unable to carry out a similar intention, perhaps fortunately, as Sir Christopher Wren proposed drastic alterations. Charles, however, completed the so-called Star Building, named from the representation of the star of the Order of the Garter on the north front. Here the state apartments are situated. They include the throne room, St George's Hall, where meetings of the Order of the Garter are held, the audience and presence chambers, and the grand reception room, adorned with Gobelins tapestries, and the guardroom with armour. All these chambers contain also splendid pictures and other objects of art; but more notable in this connexion are the picture gallery, the Rubens room or king's drawing-room, and the magnificent Van Dyck room. The ceilings of several of the chambers were decorated by Antonio Verrio, under the direction of Charles II. In the royal library, which is included among the private apartments, is a fine collection of drawings by the old masters, including three volumes from the hand of Leonardo da Vinci. Here is also a magnificent series of eighty-seven portraits by Holbein, highly finished in sepia and chalk, representing the chief personages of the court of Henry VIII. There are, moreover, examples by Michelangelo and Raphael, though the series attributed to these masters are not accepted as genuine in their entirety.

Windsor Palace Engraving

South of the castle, beside the Home Park, is the Royal Mews. Within the bounds of the park is Frogmore, with the Royal Mausoleum and that of the duchess of Kent, and the royal gardens. An oak-tree marks the supposed site of Herne's Oak, said to be haunted by "Herne the hunter" (Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, IV. 4.). A splendid avenue, the Long Walk, laid out in the time of Charles II and William III, leads from George IV's gate on the south side of the castle straight into the heart of the Great Park, a distance of 3 m. Another fine and still longer straight avenue is Queen Anne's Ride, planted in 1707. Among various buildings within the park is Cumberland Lodge, built by Charles II and taking name from the duke of Cumberland, who commanded the victorious royal troops at the battle of Culloden in 1746, and resided here as chief ranger. At the southern boundary of the park is a beautiful artificial lake called Virginia Water, formed by the duke. Windsor Forest formerly extended far over the south of Berkshire, and into the adjacent county of Surrey, and even in 1790 still covered nearly 60,000 acres. It was disafforested by an act of 1813.

A few old houses remain in the town of Windsor, but the greater part is modernized. The church of St John the Baptist was rebuilt in 1822, but contains some fine examples of Grinling Gibbons' wood-carving. There are statues of Queen Victoria, unveiled in the first Jubilee year, 1887, and of Prince Albert (1890). The town hall was built in 1686 by Sir Christopher Wren, who represented the borough in parliament. The town was formerly celebrated for the number of its inns, of which there were 70 in 1650. The most famous were the "Garter" and the "White Hart," the first of which was the favourite of Shakespeare's Sir John Falstaff, and is frequently mentioned in The Merry Wives of Windsor.

The political history of Windsor centres round the castle, at which the Norman kings held their courts and assembled their witan. Robert Mowbray was imprisoned in its dungeons in 1095, and at the Christmas court celebrated at Windsor in 1127 David of Scotland swore allegiance to the empress Maud. In 1175 it was the scene of the ratification of the treaty of Windsor. The castle was bestowed by Richard I, Lionheart, on Hugh, bishop of Durham, but in the next year was treacherously seized by Prince John and only surrendered after a siege. In 1217 Ingelram de Achie with a garrison of sixty men gallantly held the fortress against a French force under the count de Nevers. It was a centre of activity in the Barons' War, and the meeting-place of the parliament summoned by Henry in 1261 in rivalry to that of the barons at St Albans; two years later, however, it surrendered to Simon de Montfort. The appeal of high treason against Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, was heard by Richard II in Windsor Castle in 1398. During the Civil War of the 17th century the castle was garrisoned for the parliament, and in 1648 became the prison of Charles I, who spent his last Christmas within its walls.

      Excerpted from:

      Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th Ed. Vol XXVIII.
      Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1910. 715.

Other Local Resources:

Books for further study:

Robinson, John Martin. Windsor Castle: The Official Illustrated History
            London: The Royal Collection, 2006.

Rowse, A. L. Windsor Castle in the History of the Nation
            London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1974.

Thurley, Simon. The Royal Palaces of Tudor England:
           Architecture and Court Life, 1460-1547.
           Paul Mellon Center, 1993.

Windsor Castle on the Web:

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Site ©1996-2023 Anniina Jokinen. All rights reserved.
This page was created on December 1, 2006. Last updated May 13, 2023.

Index of Encyclopedia Entries:

Medieval Cosmology
Prices of Items in Medieval England

Edward II
Isabella of France, Queen of England
Piers Gaveston
Thomas of Brotherton, E. of Norfolk
Edmund of Woodstock, E. of Kent
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster
Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster
Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster
Roger Mortimer, Earl of March
Hugh le Despenser the Younger
Bartholomew, Lord Burghersh, elder

Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)

Edward III
Philippa of Hainault, Queen of England
Edward, Black Prince of Wales
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall
The Battle of Crécy, 1346
The Siege of Calais, 1346-7
The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York
Thomas of Woodstock, Gloucester
Richard of York, E. of Cambridge
Richard Fitzalan, 3. Earl of Arundel
Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March
The Good Parliament, 1376
Richard II
The Peasants' Revolt, 1381
Lords Appellant, 1388
Richard Fitzalan, 4. Earl of Arundel
Archbishop Thomas Arundel
Thomas de Beauchamp, E. Warwick
Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford
Ralph Neville, E. of Westmorland
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
Edmund Mortimer, 3. Earl of March
Roger Mortimer, 4. Earl of March
John Holland, Duke of Exeter
Michael de la Pole, E. Suffolk
Hugh de Stafford, 2. E. Stafford
Henry IV
Edward, Duke of York
Edmund Mortimer, 5. Earl of March
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland
Sir Henry Percy, "Harry Hotspur"
Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester
Owen Glendower
The Battle of Shrewsbury, 1403
Archbishop Richard Scrope
Thomas Mowbray, 3. E. Nottingham
John Mowbray, 2. Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Fitzalan, 5. Earl of Arundel
Henry V
Thomas, Duke of Clarence
John, Duke of Bedford
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury
Richard, Earl of Cambridge
Henry, Baron Scrope of Masham
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk
Thomas Montacute, E. Salisbury
Richard Beauchamp, E. of Warwick
Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter
Cardinal Henry Beaufort
John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset
Sir John Fastolf
John Holland, 2. Duke of Exeter
Archbishop John Stafford
Archbishop John Kemp
Catherine of Valois
Owen Tudor
John Fitzalan, 7. Earl of Arundel
John, Lord Tiptoft

Charles VII, King of France
Joan of Arc
Louis XI, King of France
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy
The Battle of Agincourt, 1415
The Battle of Castillon, 1453

The Wars of the Roses 1455-1485
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
The House of Lancaster
The House of York
The House of Beaufort
The House of Neville

The First Battle of St. Albans, 1455
The Battle of Blore Heath, 1459
The Rout of Ludford, 1459
The Battle of Northampton, 1460
The Battle of Wakefield, 1460
The Battle of Mortimer's Cross, 1461
The 2nd Battle of St. Albans, 1461
The Battle of Towton, 1461
The Battle of Hedgeley Moor, 1464
The Battle of Hexham, 1464
The Battle of Edgecote, 1469
The Battle of Losecoat Field, 1470
The Battle of Barnet, 1471
The Battle of Tewkesbury, 1471
The Treaty of Pecquigny, 1475
The Battle of Bosworth Field, 1485
The Battle of Stoke Field, 1487

Henry VI
Margaret of Anjou
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
Edward IV
Elizabeth Woodville
Richard Woodville, 1. Earl Rivers
Anthony Woodville, 2. Earl Rivers
Jane Shore
Edward V
Richard III
George, Duke of Clarence

Ralph Neville, 2. Earl of Westmorland
Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick
Edward Neville, Baron Bergavenny
William Neville, Lord Fauconberg
Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury
John Neville, Marquis of Montagu
George Neville, Archbishop of York
John Beaufort, 1. Duke Somerset
Edmund Beaufort, 2. Duke Somerset
Henry Beaufort, 3. Duke of Somerset
Edmund Beaufort, 4. Duke Somerset
Margaret Beaufort
Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond
Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke
Humphrey Stafford, D. Buckingham
Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham
Humphrey Stafford, E. of Devon
Thomas, Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby
Sir William Stanley
Archbishop Thomas Bourchier
Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex
John Mowbray, 3. Duke of Norfolk
John Mowbray, 4. Duke of Norfolk
John Howard, Duke of Norfolk
Henry Percy, 2. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 3. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 4. E. Northumberland
William, Lord Hastings
Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter
William Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
Thomas de Clifford, 8. Baron Clifford
John de Clifford, 9. Baron Clifford
John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester
Thomas Grey, 1. Marquis Dorset
Sir Andrew Trollop
Archbishop John Morton
Edward Plantagenet, E. of Warwick
John Talbot, 2. E. Shrewsbury
John Talbot, 3. E. Shrewsbury
John de la Pole, 2. Duke of Suffolk
John de la Pole, E. of Lincoln
Edmund de la Pole, E. of Suffolk
Richard de la Pole
John Sutton, Baron Dudley
James Butler, 5. Earl of Ormonde
Sir James Tyrell
Edmund Grey, first Earl of Kent
George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent
John, 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton
James Touchet, 7th Baron Audley
Walter Blount, Lord Mountjoy
Robert Hungerford, Lord Moleyns
Thomas, Lord Scales
John, Lord Lovel and Holand
Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell
Sir Richard Ratcliffe
William Catesby
Ralph, 4th Lord Cromwell
Jack Cade's Rebellion, 1450

Tudor Period

King Henry VII
Queen Elizabeth of York
Arthur, Prince of Wales
Lambert Simnel
Perkin Warbeck
The Battle of Blackheath, 1497

King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Queen Isabella of Castile
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

King Henry VIII
Queen Catherine of Aragon
Queen Anne Boleyn
Queen Jane Seymour
Queen Anne of Cleves
Queen Catherine Howard
Queen Katherine Parr

King Edward VI
Queen Mary I
Queen Elizabeth I
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond

Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland
James IV, King of Scotland
The Battle of Flodden Field, 1513
James V, King of Scotland
Mary of Guise, Queen of Scotland

Mary Tudor, Queen of France
Louis XII, King of France
Francis I, King of France
The Battle of the Spurs, 1513
Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador
The Siege of Boulogne, 1544

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex
Thomas, Lord Audley
Thomas Wriothesley, E. Southampton
Sir Richard Rich

Edward Stafford, D. of Buckingham
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk
Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire
George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford
John Russell, Earl of Bedford
Thomas Grey, 2. Marquis of Dorset
Henry Grey, D. of Suffolk
Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester
George Talbot, 4. E. Shrewsbury
Francis Talbot, 5. E. Shrewsbury
Henry Algernon Percy,
     5th Earl of Northumberland
Henry Algernon Percy,
     6th Earl of Northumberland
Ralph Neville, 4. E. Westmorland
Henry Neville, 5. E. Westmorland
William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester
Sir Francis Bryan
Sir Nicholas Carew
John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford
Thomas Seymour, Lord Admiral
Edward Seymour, Protector Somerset
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury
Henry Pole, Lord Montague
Sir Geoffrey Pole
Thomas Manners, Earl of Rutland
Henry Manners, Earl of Rutland
Henry Bourchier, 2. Earl of Essex
Robert Radcliffe, 1. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 2. Earl of Sussex
George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon
Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter
George Neville, Baron Bergavenny
Sir Edward Neville
William, Lord Paget
William Sandys, Baron Sandys
William Fitzwilliam, E. Southampton
Sir Anthony Browne
Sir Thomas Wriothesley
Sir William Kingston
George Brooke, Lord Cobham
Sir Richard Southwell
Thomas Fiennes, 9th Lord Dacre
Sir Francis Weston
Henry Norris
Lady Jane Grey
Sir Thomas Arundel
Sir Richard Sackville
Sir William Petre
Sir John Cheke
Walter Haddon, L.L.D
Sir Peter Carew
Sir John Mason
Nicholas Wotton
John Taylor
Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Younger

Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio
Cardinal Reginald Pole
Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester
Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London
Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London
John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester
John Aylmer, Bishop of London
Thomas Linacre
William Grocyn
Archbishop William Warham
Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham
Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester
Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford

Pope Julius II
Pope Leo X
Pope Clement VII
Pope Paul III
Pope Pius V

Pico della Mirandola
Desiderius Erasmus
Martin Bucer
Richard Pace
Christopher Saint-German
Thomas Tallis
Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent
Hans Holbein, the Younger
The Sweating Sickness

Dissolution of the Monasteries
Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536
Robert Aske
Anne Askew
Lord Thomas Darcy
Sir Robert Constable

Oath of Supremacy
The Act of Supremacy, 1534
The First Act of Succession, 1534
The Third Act of Succession, 1544
The Ten Articles, 1536
The Six Articles, 1539
The Second Statute of Repeal, 1555
The Act of Supremacy, 1559
Articles Touching Preachers, 1583

Queen Elizabeth I
William Cecil, Lord Burghley
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Sir Francis Walsingham
Sir Nicholas Bacon
Sir Thomas Bromley

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick
Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon
Sir Thomas Egerton, Viscount Brackley
Sir Francis Knollys
Katherine "Kat" Ashley
Lettice Knollys, Countess of Leicester
George Talbot, 6. E. of Shrewsbury
Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury
Gilbert Talbot, 7. E. of Shrewsbury
Sir Henry Sidney
Sir Robert Sidney
Archbishop Matthew Parker
Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich
Sir Christopher Hatton
Edward Courtenay, E. Devonshire
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Thomas Radcliffe, 3. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 4. Earl of Sussex
Robert Radcliffe, 5. Earl of Sussex
William Parr, Marquis of Northampton
Henry Wriothesley, 2. Southampton
Henry Wriothesley, 3. Southampton
Charles Neville, 6. E. Westmorland
Thomas Percy, 7. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 8. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 9. E. Nothumberland
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Henry Howard, 1. Earl of Northampton
Thomas Howard, 1. Earl of Suffolk
Henry Hastings, 3. E. of Huntingdon
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland
Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland
Henry FitzAlan, 12. Earl of Arundel
Thomas, Earl Arundell of Wardour
Edward Somerset, E. of Worcester
William Davison
Sir Walter Mildmay
Sir Ralph Sadler
Sir Amyas Paulet
Gilbert Gifford
Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague
François, Duke of Alençon & Anjou

Mary, Queen of Scots
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell
Anthony Babington and the Babington Plot
John Knox

Philip II of Spain
The Spanish Armada, 1588
Sir Francis Drake
Sir John Hawkins

William Camden
Archbishop Whitgift
Martin Marprelate Controversy
John Penry (Martin Marprelate)
Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury
John Dee, Alchemist

Philip Henslowe
Edward Alleyn
The Blackfriars Theatre
The Fortune Theatre
The Rose Theatre
The Swan Theatre
Children's Companies
The Admiral's Men
The Lord Chamberlain's Men
Citizen Comedy
The Isle of Dogs, 1597

Common Law
Court of Common Pleas
Court of King's Bench
Court of Star Chamber
Council of the North
Fleet Prison
First Fruits & Tenths
Livery and Maintenance
Oyer and terminer

The Stuarts

King James I of England
Anne of Denmark
Henry, Prince of Wales
The Gunpowder Plot, 1605
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset
Arabella Stuart, Lady Lennox

William Alabaster
Bishop Hall
Bishop Thomas Morton
Archbishop William Laud
John Selden
Lucy Harington, Countess of Bedford
Henry Lawes

King Charles I
Queen Henrietta Maria

Long Parliament
Rump Parliament
Kentish Petition, 1642

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford
John Digby, Earl of Bristol
George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax
Robert Devereux, 3rd E. of Essex
Robert Sidney, 2. E. of Leicester
Algernon Percy, E. of Northumberland
Henry Montagu, Earl of Manchester
Edward Montagu, 2. Earl of Manchester

The Restoration

King Charles II
King James II
Test Acts

Greenwich Palace
Hatfield House
Richmond Palace
Windsor Palace
Woodstock Manor

The Cinque Ports
Mermaid Tavern
Malmsey Wine
Great Fire of London, 1666
Merchant Taylors' School
Westminster School
The Sanctuary at Westminster


Chart of the English Succession from William I through Henry VII

Medieval English Drama

London c1480, MS Royal 16
London, 1510, the earliest view in print
Map of England from Saxton's Descriptio Angliae, 1579
London in late 16th century
Location Map of Elizabethan London
Plan of the Bankside, Southwark, in Shakespeare's time
Detail of Norden's Map of the Bankside, 1593
Bull and Bear Baiting Rings from the Agas Map (1569-1590, pub. 1631)
Sketch of the Swan Theatre, c. 1596
Westminster in the Seventeenth Century, by Hollar
Visscher's View of London, 1616
Larger Visscher's View in Sections
c. 1690. View of London Churches, after the Great Fire
The Yard of the Tabard Inn from Thornbury, Old and New London

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