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The Garter Arms of Sir William Neville, Lord Fauconberg

Signature of William Neville, Lord Fauconberg. From Doyle's Baronage.

William Neville, Baron Fauconberg and Earl of Kent (d. 1463)

WILLIAM NEVILLE, Baron Fauconberg and afterwards Earl of Kent (d. 1463), was the second son of Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmorland (d. 1425), by his second wife, Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt. Westmorland left him by will the barony of Bywell and Styford in Northumberland.1 His brothers, Richard, Earl of Salisbury, Edward, Baron Bergavenny, and Robert, Bishop of Salisbury, are separately noticed. Knighted by the seven-year-old Henry VI at Leicester on Whit Sunday (19 May) 1426, Neville is said, though this rests only on the authority of Polydore Vergil, to have won his first military laurels under his elder brother's father-in-law, the Earl of Salisbury, at the siege of Orleans in 1428.2

His father married him before 1424 to Joan, the heiress of the last Baron Fauconberg (also spelt Fauconbrygge) of Skelton Castle, in Cleveland, at the mouth of the Tees, which the Fauconbergs had inherited from the Bruces along with the patronage of the neighbouring Augustinian priory at Guisborough. Her father had died in 1407, when she must have been only a few months old.3 In her right, though till 1455 under his own name, her husband was summoned to parliament on 3 Aug. 1429.4 After having been employed for some time in Scottish affairs, Fauconberg, with his elder brother, Salisbury, joined the Duke of York's expedition to France in the spring of 1436, in consideration of which he was allowed to temporarily enfeoff his brothers, Lord Latimer of Danby, in Cleveland, and Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury, with his wife's manor of Marske in Cleveland.5

He was prominent in the campaign against the Duke of Burgundy in that year, and appears in 1439 in charge of an important post in Normandy, captain of Verneuil, Evreux, and Le Neufbourg, captain-general in the marches of the Chartrain, and governor of the vicomtes of Auge, Orbec, and Pont Audemer.6 He was at the siege of Meaux in August.7 In the following year he assisted his cousin Edmund Beaufort, Earl of Dorset, to capture Harfleur.8 His services were rewarded with the garter, vacated by the death (1439) of Richard de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and now or later by the Norman lordship of Rugles, near Breteuil.9

He served under the Duke of York in 1441-2, and in the autumn of the latter year was joined with him and others as commissioner for some proposed peace negotiations.10 But in March 1443 he was appointed captain of Roxburgh Castle for five years, and was present in the privy council in the summer.11 At the end of that year his brother Robert, now bishop of Durham, appointed him steward of the bishopric, a position which he continued to fill until 1453.12 In 1448 Fanconberg was again in France acting as one of the English commissioners in the conferences held at Louviers and Rouen during the winter.13 But on 16 May 1449, in a sudden attack made by the French on Pont de l'Arche, he was taken prisoner and had nearly been slain by the archer who seized him.14 'The Fisher has lost his angle hook' (Fauconberg's badge), lamented a contemporary bewailer of England's misfortunes.15 He was liberated in the course of 1450, and served on an embassy to Charles VII appointed in September of that year.16

Two years later Fauconberg was given security for over four thousand pounds arrears of pay.17 This and his reappointment at the same time as keeper of Roxburgh Castle for twelve years, in association with Sir Ralph Grey, may perhaps be connected with the abstention of the Nevilles from York's recent armed demonstration.18 During York's first protectorship in 1454, Fauconberg, whose elder brother, Salisbury, was Chancellor, sat with the other chiefs of the family in the privy council. He was not present at the first battle of St. Albans, being then in France on an embassy to Charles VII; but in the distribution of rewards among York's Neville supporters, he was made joint constable of Windsor Castle, and sat regularly at the council board.19

In 1457 he was serving at Calais under his nephew Warwick, and in the February of the following year commanded a fleet at Southampton, a French fleet being in the Channel.20 When Warwick went over in the summer of 1459 to join in the general Yorkist rising that had been arranged, Fauconberg remained behind as his lieutenant at Calais, to which he readmitted his nephew, who was accompanied by his father, Salisbury, and the Earl of March [afterwards ], on their being driven out of England in October.21 He was not included in their attainder. But at the end of June 1460 he and Sir John Dynham secured a landing-place for the earls at Calais by the sudden capture of Sandwich. Fauconberg sent Osbert Mundeford, whom he had taken prisoner, to Calais, and remained at Sandwich until the arrival of Warwick and the rest on 28 June.22 A fortnight later (10 July) he assisted Warwick and March in gaining the victory of Northampton, when the king [Henry VI] fell into their hands.23

His presence is not mentioned either at Wakefield (14 Dec. 1460) or at the second St. Albans (17 Feb. 1461); but in March 1461 he joined Edward IV on his march into the north and fought at Towton. Hall ascribes a very prominent part in it to Fauconberg. When Lord Clifford, during the night of 27-8 March, recovered the passage of the Aire at Ferrybridge, which the Yorkists had seized, Fauconberg, with Edward's vanguard, was detached to cross the river at Castleford, three miles higher up the river. This movement caused Clifford to fall back from Ferrybridge upon the main body of the Lancastrian forces at Towton; but Fauconberg suddenly fell upon him before he could reach it and cut his detachment to pieces, Clifford himself being slain.

In the battle next day at Towton, Fauconberg, 'a man of great policy and much experience of martial feats,' is credited with a manoeuvre which apparently went far to decide the battle. Commanding the Yorkist left, he ordered his archers to pour a flight of arrows into the opposing ranks and then fall back a little space. With the wind in their favour they did great execution, while the return flight fell short of them by 'forty tailor's yards.' Advancing a little, they discharged another flight into the ranks of the Lancastrians, who then pressed forward to attack them at close quarters, and thereby lost their advantage of position and fell into disorder.24 It should be noted, however, with regard to what took place at Ferrybridge, that Fauconberg's nephew, the Chancellor George Neville, in the report which he sent from London to the legate Coppini a week after the battle, states that the passage was carried 'sword in hand' at Ferrybridge, and makes no mention of a detour by Castleford.25 It is possible, of course, that he wrote on early and imperfect information.

Edward left Fauconberg to assist his nephews Warwick and Montagu in completing the reduction of the north when he went south for his coronation. His services were recognised in the distribution of honours on that occasion, or a little later, by his elevation to the earldom of Kent, which had become extinct on the death of Edmund Holland in 1408. The date of the creation has been fixed, on no very convincing grounds, as 30 June, two days after the coronation.26 Kent also became Lord-Steward of the Household and privy councillor (1461), was licensed to export a hundred sacks of wool duty-free, and received (1462) a grant of the manor of Crewkeme, Somerset.27

In July 1462 Queen Margaret having taken refuge with Louis XI, who was preparing to assist her return, Kent was appointed Admiral of England (30 July), and, taking a fleet down the Channel, made descents in Brittany and on the Isle of Rhé, which he pillaged.28 He failed, however, to intercept Margaret when she sailed from Normandy in September. His last public appointment, that of special commissioner and justice of oyer and terminer in Northumberland and Newcastle, bears date 21 Nov. 1462, and on 9 Jan. 1463 he died and was buried in Guisborough priory.29 In the anonymous Yorkist ballad fastened to the gates of Canterbury shortly before the landing of the exiles from Calais, in 1460, he was described as 'Lytelle Fauconbrege, a Knyghte of grete reverence.'30

As he left no son, the earldom of Kent became extinct, and was revived in 1465 in favour of Edmund Grey, fourth Baron Grey de Ruthyn. The barony of Fauconberg fell into abeyance between his three daughters—Joane, wife of Sir Edward Bedhowing; Elizabeth, wife of Sir Richard Strangeways of Harlesey, in Cleveland; and Alice, wife of Sir John Conyers of Hornby Castle, Yorkshire, chief leader in the Neville rising of 1469, called the revolt of Robin of Redesdale; the chronicler Warkworth, indeed, identifies that mysterious personage with Conyers. Among the descendants of these three daughters, Fauconberg's barony remained in abeyance till 1903, when the title of Marcia, eldest daughter of the twelfth Baron Conyers, was established. The barony of Fauconberg of Yarm (near Stockton) held by the family of Belasyse, 1627-1815, was a new creation.

[For a natural son, called the Bastard of Fauconberg, see Fauconberg, Thomas.]

1. Wills and Inventories, Surtees Society, i. 71.
2. Leland, Collectanea, ii. 490; Polydore Vergil, English History, ed. Camden Society, p. 23.
3. Dugdale, Baronage i. 308.
4. Nicolas, Historic Peerage; Lords' Report on the Dignity of a Peer, v. 236.
5. Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council, ed. Nicolas, iv. 174, 336.
6. ib. v. 386; Chronique de Mathieu d'Escouchy, ii. 543; Monstrelet, Chronique, ed. Douët-d'Arcq, Société de l'Histoire de France, v. 264, 310.
7. Ord. Privy Council, v. 386.
8. Wavrin, Chroniques, iv. 274.
9. Beltz, Memorials of the Order of the Garter; Stevenson, Wars of the English in France, ii. 623.
10. De Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, iii. 183; Ord. Privy Council, v. 212; cf. Rymer, Foedera, xi. 4.
11. ib. pp. 249, 270; Stevenson, i. 519.
12. Doyle, Official Baronage.
13. Beaucourt, iv. 319, 330.
14. ib.; d'Escouchy, i. 166.
15. Paston Letters, i. p. 1.
16. ib. i. 101; Doyle.
17. Dugdale. £4,000 in 1452 was roughly equivalent in purchasing power to £2,440,000 in 2010.
Source: Measuring Worth.
18. ib.
19. Doyle; Beaucourt, v. 410.
20. Dugdale; Paston Letters, i. 425.
21. Fabyan, Chronicle, 1811, p. 635; Whethamstede, Registra, i. 368.
22. ib. pp. 370-1; An English Chronicle, ed. Davies, p. 91.
23. ib. p. 95.
24. see English Historical Review, iv. 463; Archaeologia, ix. 253.
25. State Papers, Venetian, i. 370.
26. Polydore Vergil, p. 113; Nicolas, Historic Peerage, p. 271.
27. ib.; Dugdale.
28. Chastellain, Oeuvres, Kervyn de Lettenhove, ed., iv. 270; Foedera, xi. 490; Stow, Chronicle, p. 416.
29. Doyle; Nicolas, p. 271.
30. Chron., ed. Davies.

Dictionary of National Biography. Vol XL. Sidney Lee, Ed.
New York: Macmillan and Co., 1894. 304-6.

Other Local Resources:

Books for further study:

Hicks, Michael. The Wars of the Roses 1455-1485.
           New York: Routledge, 2003.

Richardson, Geoffrey. The Lordly Ones: A History of the Neville Family
           and Their Part in the Wars of the Roses.
           Baildon Books, 1998.

Swallow, H. J. De Nova Villa: or, The House of Nevill in Sunshine and Shade.
           Newcastle-on-Tyne: Andrew Reid, 1885.

Weir, Alison. The Wars of the Roses.
           New York: Ballantine Books, 1996.

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This page was created on July 15, 2012. Last updated April 28, 2023.

Index of Encyclopedia Entries:

Medieval Cosmology
Prices of Items in Medieval England

Edward II
Isabella of France, Queen of England
Piers Gaveston
Thomas of Brotherton, E. of Norfolk
Edmund of Woodstock, E. of Kent
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster
Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster
Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster
Roger Mortimer, Earl of March
Hugh le Despenser the Younger
Bartholomew, Lord Burghersh, elder

Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)

Edward III
Philippa of Hainault, Queen of England
Edward, Black Prince of Wales
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall
The Battle of Crécy, 1346
The Siege of Calais, 1346-7
The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York
Thomas of Woodstock, Gloucester
Richard of York, E. of Cambridge
Richard Fitzalan, 3. Earl of Arundel
Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March
The Good Parliament, 1376
Richard II
The Peasants' Revolt, 1381
Lords Appellant, 1388
Richard Fitzalan, 4. Earl of Arundel
Archbishop Thomas Arundel
Thomas de Beauchamp, E. Warwick
Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford
Ralph Neville, E. of Westmorland
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
Edmund Mortimer, 3. Earl of March
Roger Mortimer, 4. Earl of March
John Holland, Duke of Exeter
Michael de la Pole, E. Suffolk
Hugh de Stafford, 2. E. Stafford
Henry IV
Edward, Duke of York
Edmund Mortimer, 5. Earl of March
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland
Sir Henry Percy, "Harry Hotspur"
Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester
Owen Glendower
The Battle of Shrewsbury, 1403
Archbishop Richard Scrope
Thomas Mowbray, 3. E. Nottingham
John Mowbray, 2. Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Fitzalan, 5. Earl of Arundel
Henry V
Thomas, Duke of Clarence
John, Duke of Bedford
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury
Richard, Earl of Cambridge
Henry, Baron Scrope of Masham
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk
Thomas Montacute, E. Salisbury
Richard Beauchamp, E. of Warwick
Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick
Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter
Cardinal Henry Beaufort
John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset
Sir John Fastolf
John Holland, 2. Duke of Exeter
Archbishop John Stafford
Archbishop John Kemp
Catherine of Valois
Owen Tudor
John Fitzalan, 7. Earl of Arundel
John, Lord Tiptoft

Charles VII, King of France
Joan of Arc
Louis XI, King of France
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy
The Battle of Agincourt, 1415
The Battle of Castillon, 1453

The Wars of the Roses 1455-1485
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
The House of Lancaster
The House of York
The House of Beaufort
The House of Neville

The First Battle of St. Albans, 1455
The Battle of Blore Heath, 1459
The Rout of Ludford, 1459
The Battle of Northampton, 1460
The Battle of Wakefield, 1460
The Battle of Mortimer's Cross, 1461
The 2nd Battle of St. Albans, 1461
The Battle of Towton, 1461
The Battle of Hedgeley Moor, 1464
The Battle of Hexham, 1464
The Battle of Edgecote, 1469
The Battle of Losecoat Field, 1470
The Battle of Barnet, 1471
The Battle of Tewkesbury, 1471
The Treaty of Pecquigny, 1475
The Battle of Bosworth Field, 1485
The Battle of Stoke Field, 1487

Henry VI
Margaret of Anjou
Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York
Edward IV
Elizabeth Woodville
Richard Woodville, 1. Earl Rivers
Anthony Woodville, 2. Earl Rivers
Jane Shore
Edward V
Richard III
George, Duke of Clarence

Ralph Neville, 2. Earl of Westmorland
Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick
Edward Neville, Baron Bergavenny
William Neville, Lord Fauconberg
Robert Neville, Bishop of Salisbury
John Neville, Marquis of Montagu
George Neville, Archbishop of York
John Beaufort, 1. Duke Somerset
Edmund Beaufort, 2. Duke Somerset
Henry Beaufort, 3. Duke of Somerset
Edmund Beaufort, 4. Duke Somerset
Margaret Beaufort
Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond
Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke
Humphrey Stafford, D. Buckingham
Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham
Humphrey Stafford, E. of Devon
Thomas, Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby
Sir William Stanley
Archbishop Thomas Bourchier
Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex
John Mowbray, 3. Duke of Norfolk
John Mowbray, 4. Duke of Norfolk
John Howard, Duke of Norfolk
Henry Percy, 2. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 3. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 4. E. Northumberland
William, Lord Hastings
Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter
William Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
Thomas de Clifford, 8. Baron Clifford
John de Clifford, 9. Baron Clifford
John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester
Thomas Grey, 1. Marquis Dorset
Sir Andrew Trollop
Archbishop John Morton
Edward Plantagenet, E. of Warwick
John Talbot, 2. E. Shrewsbury
John Talbot, 3. E. Shrewsbury
John de la Pole, 2. Duke of Suffolk
John de la Pole, E. of Lincoln
Edmund de la Pole, E. of Suffolk
Richard de la Pole
John Sutton, Baron Dudley
James Butler, 5. Earl of Ormonde
Sir James Tyrell
Edmund Grey, first Earl of Kent
George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent
John, 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton
James Touchet, 7th Baron Audley
Walter Blount, Lord Mountjoy
Robert Hungerford, Lord Moleyns
Thomas, Lord Scales
John, Lord Lovel and Holand
Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovell
Sir Richard Ratcliffe
William Catesby
Ralph, 4th Lord Cromwell
Jack Cade's Rebellion, 1450

Tudor Period

King Henry VII
Queen Elizabeth of York
Arthur, Prince of Wales
Lambert Simnel
Perkin Warbeck
The Battle of Blackheath, 1497

King Ferdinand II of Aragon
Queen Isabella of Castile
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

King Henry VIII
Queen Catherine of Aragon
Queen Anne Boleyn
Queen Jane Seymour
Queen Anne of Cleves
Queen Catherine Howard
Queen Katherine Parr

King Edward VI
Queen Mary I
Queen Elizabeth I
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond

Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland
James IV, King of Scotland
The Battle of Flodden Field, 1513
James V, King of Scotland
Mary of Guise, Queen of Scotland

Mary Tudor, Queen of France
Louis XII, King of France
Francis I, King of France
The Battle of the Spurs, 1513
Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Eustace Chapuys, Imperial Ambassador
The Siege of Boulogne, 1544

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
Archbishop Thomas Cranmer
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex
Thomas, Lord Audley
Thomas Wriothesley, E. Southampton
Sir Richard Rich

Edward Stafford, D. of Buckingham
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk
Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire
George Boleyn, Viscount Rochford
John Russell, Earl of Bedford
Thomas Grey, 2. Marquis of Dorset
Henry Grey, D. of Suffolk
Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester
George Talbot, 4. E. Shrewsbury
Francis Talbot, 5. E. Shrewsbury
Henry Algernon Percy,
     5th Earl of Northumberland
Henry Algernon Percy,
     6th Earl of Northumberland
Ralph Neville, 4. E. Westmorland
Henry Neville, 5. E. Westmorland
William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester
Sir Francis Bryan
Sir Nicholas Carew
John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford
Thomas Seymour, Lord Admiral
Edward Seymour, Protector Somerset
Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury
Henry Pole, Lord Montague
Sir Geoffrey Pole
Thomas Manners, Earl of Rutland
Henry Manners, Earl of Rutland
Henry Bourchier, 2. Earl of Essex
Robert Radcliffe, 1. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 2. Earl of Sussex
George Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon
Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter
George Neville, Baron Bergavenny
Sir Edward Neville
William, Lord Paget
William Sandys, Baron Sandys
William Fitzwilliam, E. Southampton
Sir Anthony Browne
Sir Thomas Wriothesley
Sir William Kingston
George Brooke, Lord Cobham
Sir Richard Southwell
Thomas Fiennes, 9th Lord Dacre
Sir Francis Weston
Henry Norris
Lady Jane Grey
Sir Thomas Arundel
Sir Richard Sackville
Sir William Petre
Sir John Cheke
Walter Haddon, L.L.D
Sir Peter Carew
Sir John Mason
Nicholas Wotton
John Taylor
Sir Thomas Wyatt, the Younger

Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio
Cardinal Reginald Pole
Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester
Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London
Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of London
John Hooper, Bishop of Gloucester
John Aylmer, Bishop of London
Thomas Linacre
William Grocyn
Archbishop William Warham
Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham
Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester
Edward Fox, Bishop of Hereford

Pope Julius II
Pope Leo X
Pope Clement VII
Pope Paul III
Pope Pius V

Pico della Mirandola
Desiderius Erasmus
Martin Bucer
Richard Pace
Christopher Saint-German
Thomas Tallis
Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent
Hans Holbein, the Younger
The Sweating Sickness

Dissolution of the Monasteries
Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536
Robert Aske
Anne Askew
Lord Thomas Darcy
Sir Robert Constable

Oath of Supremacy
The Act of Supremacy, 1534
The First Act of Succession, 1534
The Third Act of Succession, 1544
The Ten Articles, 1536
The Six Articles, 1539
The Second Statute of Repeal, 1555
The Act of Supremacy, 1559
Articles Touching Preachers, 1583

Queen Elizabeth I
William Cecil, Lord Burghley
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Sir Francis Walsingham
Sir Nicholas Bacon
Sir Thomas Bromley

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick
Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon
Sir Thomas Egerton, Viscount Brackley
Sir Francis Knollys
Katherine "Kat" Ashley
Lettice Knollys, Countess of Leicester
George Talbot, 6. E. of Shrewsbury
Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury
Gilbert Talbot, 7. E. of Shrewsbury
Sir Henry Sidney
Sir Robert Sidney
Archbishop Matthew Parker
Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex
Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich
Sir Christopher Hatton
Edward Courtenay, E. Devonshire
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Thomas Radcliffe, 3. Earl of Sussex
Henry Radcliffe, 4. Earl of Sussex
Robert Radcliffe, 5. Earl of Sussex
William Parr, Marquis of Northampton
Henry Wriothesley, 2. Southampton
Henry Wriothesley, 3. Southampton
Charles Neville, 6. E. Westmorland
Thomas Percy, 7. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 8. E. Northumberland
Henry Percy, 9. E. Nothumberland
William Herbert, 1. Earl of Pembroke
Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk
Henry Howard, 1. Earl of Northampton
Thomas Howard, 1. Earl of Suffolk
Henry Hastings, 3. E. of Huntingdon
Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland
Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland
Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland
Henry FitzAlan, 12. Earl of Arundel
Thomas, Earl Arundell of Wardour
Edward Somerset, E. of Worcester
William Davison
Sir Walter Mildmay
Sir Ralph Sadler
Sir Amyas Paulet
Gilbert Gifford
Anthony Browne, Viscount Montague
François, Duke of Alençon & Anjou

Mary, Queen of Scots
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell
Anthony Babington and the Babington Plot
John Knox

Philip II of Spain
The Spanish Armada, 1588
Sir Francis Drake
Sir John Hawkins

William Camden
Archbishop Whitgift
Martin Marprelate Controversy
John Penry (Martin Marprelate)
Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury
John Dee, Alchemist

Philip Henslowe
Edward Alleyn
The Blackfriars Theatre
The Fortune Theatre
The Rose Theatre
The Swan Theatre
Children's Companies
The Admiral's Men
The Lord Chamberlain's Men
Citizen Comedy
The Isle of Dogs, 1597

Common Law
Court of Common Pleas
Court of King's Bench
Court of Star Chamber
Council of the North
Fleet Prison
First Fruits & Tenths
Livery and Maintenance
Oyer and terminer

The Stuarts

King James I of England
Anne of Denmark
Henry, Prince of Wales
The Gunpowder Plot, 1605
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset
Arabella Stuart, Lady Lennox

William Alabaster
Bishop Hall
Bishop Thomas Morton
Archbishop William Laud
John Selden
Lucy Harington, Countess of Bedford
Henry Lawes

King Charles I
Queen Henrietta Maria

Long Parliament
Rump Parliament
Kentish Petition, 1642

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford
John Digby, Earl of Bristol
George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol
Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax
Robert Devereux, 3rd E. of Essex
Robert Sidney, 2. E. of Leicester
Algernon Percy, E. of Northumberland
Henry Montagu, Earl of Manchester
Edward Montagu, 2. Earl of Manchester

The Restoration

King Charles II
King James II
Test Acts

Greenwich Palace
Hatfield House
Richmond Palace
Windsor Palace
Woodstock Manor

The Cinque Ports
Mermaid Tavern
Malmsey Wine
Great Fire of London, 1666
Merchant Taylors' School
Westminster School
The Sanctuary at Westminster


Chart of the English Succession from William I through Henry VII

Medieval English Drama

London c1480, MS Royal 16
London, 1510, the earliest view in print
Map of England from Saxton's Descriptio Angliae, 1579
London in late 16th century
Location Map of Elizabethan London
Plan of the Bankside, Southwark, in Shakespeare's time
Detail of Norden's Map of the Bankside, 1593
Bull and Bear Baiting Rings from the Agas Map (1569-1590, pub. 1631)
Sketch of the Swan Theatre, c. 1596
Westminster in the Seventeenth Century, by Hollar
Visscher's View of London, 1616
Larger Visscher's View in Sections
c. 1690. View of London Churches, after the Great Fire
The Yard of the Tabard Inn from Thornbury, Old and New London

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